The characteristic of the ultra-precision CNC machined part processing method is that the amount of external surface material removal or addition can be controlled very finely.However, to obtain the precision of ultra-precision parts, it still depends on precise processing equipment and accurate restraint system, and the use of ultra-precision masks as intermediaries.For example, in the manufacture of very large-scale integrated circuits, even if an electron beam is used to expose the photoresist on the mask (see photolithography), the atoms of the photoresist are directly polymerized (or decomposed) under the impact of electrons, and then The polymerized or unpolymerized part is dissolved with a developer to form a mask. Electron beam exposure plate making must use ultra-precision processing equipment with a table positioning accuracy of up to ± 0.01 microns.
Cutting of ultra-precision CNC machined partsThere are mainly ultra-precision CNC turning, mirror grinding and grinding. On ultra-precision lathes, micro-turning is performed with a finely-ground single crystal diamond turning tool. The cutting thickness is only about 1 micron. It is often used to process spherical, aspheric and flat mirrors of non-ferrous materials with high-precision and highly smooth appearance. Components. For example, an aspheric mirror with a diameter of 800 millimeters for processing nuclear fusion devices can achieve a maximum accuracy of 0.1 micron and an appearance roughness of 0.05 micron.
When the precision of ultra-precision CNC machined parts processing is nanometers, or even the final atomic unit (atomic lattice distance is 0.1 to 0.2 nanometers), the cutting method of ultra-precision parts can no longer be adapted. It is necessary to rely on the method of special precision parts processing, that is, applied chemistry Energy, electrochemical energy, thermal energy, or electrical energy, etc., to make these energies exceed the joint energy of the atoms, thereby removing the attachment, union or lattice deformation of some parts of the workpiece surface to achieve the purpose of ultra-precision cnc machining.
These processes include mechanochemical polishing, ion sputtering and ion implantation, electron beam exposure, laser beam processing, metal evaporation, and molecular beam epitaxy.
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