The choice of tool is carried out in the human-computer interaction state of NC programming. The tool and tool holder should be selected correctly according to the machining capacity of the machine tool, the performance of the workpiece material, the machining process, the amount of cutting and other relevant factors. Tool selection The general principle is: easy installation and adjustment, good rigidity, durability and high precision. Under the premise of meeting the processing requirements, try to choose a shorter tool holder to improve the rigidity of the tool processing.
When selecting a tool, make the size of the tool match the surface size of the workpiece being machined. In the production, the peripheral contour of the plane parts is often processed by the end mill; when milling the plane, the cemented carbide insert milling cutter should be selected; when the boss and the groove are machined, the high-speed steel end mill is selected; the surface of the blank is processed or roughed. For the hole, the corn milling cutter with the carbide insert can be selected; for the machining of some three-dimensional and variable bevel contours, ball-end milling cutters, ring milling cutters, conical milling cutters and disc milling cutters are often used.
In the free-form surface machining, since the cutting speed of the end of the ball-end tool is zero, in order to ensure the machining accuracy, the cutting line spacing is generally very dense, so the ball head is often used for surface finishing. The flat-blade tool is superior to the ball-end knives in terms of surface quality and cutting efficiency. Therefore, the flat-blade knives should be preferred as long as the roughing or finishing of the surface is ensured. In addition, the durability and accuracy of the tool are highly dependent on the tool price. It must be noted that in most cases, the choice of a good tool increases the tool cost, but the resulting processing quality and processing efficiency increase. , can make the entire processing cost greatly reduced.
In the machining center, various tools are mounted on the tool magazine, and the tool selection and tool change operations are performed at any time according to the program. Therefore, a standard tool holder must be used in order to quickly and accurately mount the standard tool for drilling, boring, expanding, milling, etc. on the machine tool spindle or tool magazine. The programmer should be aware of the structural dimensions, adjustment methods, and adjustment range of the tool holder used on the machine to determine the radial and axial dimensions of the tool during programming. At present, China's machining center adopts TSG tool system. Its tool holder has straight handle (three specifications) and taper shank (four specifications), including 16 different handles.
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