1. Copper production
(1) International market
The main source of copper
From the perspective of regional distribution, there are five regions with the richest copper reserves in the world: 1) the western foothills of the Andes in Peru and Chile in South America; 2) the Rocky and Daping Valley regions in the western United States; 3) the Congo and Zambia in Africa; 4 ) The Republic of Kazakhstan; 5) Eastern and Central Canada.
From the perspective of country distribution, the world’s copper resources are mainly concentrated in Chile, the United States, Zambia, the Commonwealth of Independent States and Peru. Chile is the country with the richest copper resources in the world, and its copper metal reserves account for about 1/4 of the world’s total reserves. The United States and Japan are the main producers of refined copper, Zambia and Zaire are the main copper producing countries in central Africa. All of their copper is exported. Germany and Belgium use imported copper concentrates and blister copper to smelt refined copper. Producing countries. In addition, Peru, Canada, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Poland, and the former Yugoslavia are also important copper producing countries.
Humans have a long history of copper smelting, but for a long time, due to the primitive copper smelting method, the output of copper has been very low. After the modern copper smelting method appeared in the 17th century, the copper output increased significantly. In 1928, the world’s refined copper output was 1.67 million tons. The world’s smelting industry developed rapidly after the war. In 1950, the world’s refined copper output was only 3.15 million tons, and in 1992 it reached 11 million tons. The development rate of production in different years was different. In the 1950s, the average annual growth rate of copper production was 4.7%, in the 1960s it was 4.2%, in the 1970s it was 2.07%, and in the 1980s it was further reduced to 1.5%. In the early 1990s, In the mid-term, with the continuous reduction of production costs and the stimulation of higher copper prices, the output of copper has increased substantially.
In 2000, the world’s annual output of copper reached 14.68 million tons. The output of the main producing countries and regions were: Chile 2.628 million tons, the United States 1.732 million tons, Japan 1.455 million tons, China 1.33 million tons, and Europe 2.38 million tons.
(2) Domestic market
Copper production Although my country is poor in copper resources, it is one of the world’s major refined copper producers. In 2000, copper output reached 1.33 million tons, accounting for 9.09% of the world’s total output. At present, copper production is concentrated in East China, where copper production accounts for 51.8% of the country’s total output, of which Anhui and Jiangxi provinces account for about 35%.
2. Copper consumption
In 2000, the global consumption of copper was approximately 14.885 million tons, and copper consumption was concentrated in developed industrial countries. The United States is the largest copper consumer. In 2000, it consumed 2.923 million tons, accounting for about one-fifth of the world’s total consumption, followed by China 1.75 million tons, Japan 1.327 million tons, and Europe 4.385 million tons.
From an industry perspective, the largest consumer of copper was in the electrical industry in the 1980s and the construction industry in the 1990s. According to statistics, the electrical industry accounted for 47.8% of the refined copper consumption in the United States, Japan, and Western European countries in the mid-1980s, machinery manufacturing accounted for 23.8%, construction industry accounted for 15.8%, transportation industry accounted for 8.8%, and others accounted for 8%. After the 1990s, the industrial distribution of copper consumption in Western countries has undergone tremendous changes.Take the United States as an example.In 1998, construction industry accounted for 41.4% of copper consumption, electrical and electronic products accounted for 26.0%, transportation equipment 12.4%, and machinery manufacturing 11.2%. , Other 9.0%.
(2) Domestically, from the perspective of regional distribution, my country’s main copper consumption places are in East China and South China, and their consumption accounts for about 70% of the total national consumption.
From the perspective of industry distribution, the industry with the largest copper consumption is the electrical and electronic industry. Construction, machinery manufacturing, and transportation also consume a large amount of copper.
The following is the ratio of copper consumption in various industries in my country to total copper consumption:
Compared with developed countries, the proportion of copper consumed by the electronics and electrical industries and machinery manufacturing in my country in total consumption is significantly higher than that in developed countries, while the proportion of copper consumed by the construction and transportation industries is much lower than that in developed countries. .
3. Copper import and export
The world’s major copper exporters: 1) Chile: the world’s largest copper exporter, most of the copper ore and copper produced are exported, mainly to the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and other places; 2) Zambia: to the European Community, Some of them are exported to China from the United States and Japan. 3) Peru: The proven reserves rank fourth in the world, the annual mining volume ranks seventh in the world, and the export volume ranks fifth in the world. The products are mainly exported to the United States, Japan and other countries; 4) Zaire: copper produced Most of the ore is exported, mainly to Western Europe, Japan and the United States; 5) Australia: 1/4 of its output is exported; 6) Canada: is the country with the largest export of copper ore in developed countries, and the export volume accounts for 70% of the production volume. %about.
The world’s major copper importing countries: the United States, Japan, the European Community, and China.
my country is a country with a shortage of copper resources. The self-reliance rate of raw materials for refined copper is only 40%, and a large amount of copper concentrate is imported every year. The import composition of copper accounts for a large proportion of raw material imports, and the growth rate of electrolytic copper imports is greater than that of semi-finished products (copper rods, copper tubes, etc.). On the contrary, the export volume of copper is very small, and mainly semi-finished products and processed products. With the gradual reduction of export tariffs, copper exports have increased to a certain extent in recent years compared with the early and mid-1990s.