Q – WHAT IS DIE CASTING?A – Die casting is a manufacturing process for producing accurately dimensioned, sharply defined, smooth or textured-surface metal parts. It is accomplished by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable metal dies. The process is often described as the shortest distance between raw material and finished product. The term “die casting” is also used to describe the finished part.
The term “gravity die casting” refers to castings made in metal molds under a gravity head. It is known as permanent mold casting in the U.S.A. and Canada. What we call “die casting” here is known as “pressure die casting” in Europe.
HOW ARE DIE CASTINGS PRODUCED?First, a steel mold capable of producing tens of thousands of castings in rapid succession must be made in at least two sections to permit removal of castings. These sections are mounted securely in a machine and are arranged so that one is stationary (fixed die half) while the other is moveable (injector die half). To begin the casting cycle, the two die halves are clamped tightly together by the die casting machine. Molten metal is injected into the die cavity where it solidifies quickly. The die halves are drawn apart and the casting is ejected. Die casting dies can be simple or complex, having moveable slides, cores, or other sections depending on the complexity of the casting.
The complete cycle of the die casting process is by far the fastest known for producing precise non-ferrous metal parts. This is in marked contrast to sand casting which requires a new sand mold for each casting. While the permanent mold process uses iron or steel molds instead of sand, it is considerably slower, and not as precise as die casting.
TYPES OF MACHINES FOR DIE CASTINGRegardless of the type of machine used, it is essential that die halves, cores and/or other moveable sections be securely locked in place during the casting cycle. Generally, the clamping force of the machine is governed by (a) the projected surface area of the casting (measured at the die parting line) and (b) the pressure used to inject metal into the die. Most machines use toggle type mechanisms actuated by hydraulic cylinders (sometimes air pressure) to achieve locking. Others use direct acting hydraulic pressure. Safety interlock systems are used to prevent the die from opening during the casting cycles.
Die casting machines, large or small, vary fundamentally only in the method used to inject molten metal into the die. These are classified and described as either hot or cold chamber die casting machines.
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